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Historical Happenings

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Greenwich Library Community Survey

Greenwich Library is conducting an anonymous survey to examine the community's views about Library services and priorities. You can access the survey on our website:

It takes less than 10 minutes to complete but will help inform our choices about programming and other Library services for years to come.  

The survey is available online in English, Japanese and Spanish

Greenwich's September 11th Memorial

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Last May, I noticed some construction men working on a small hill near the Pavillion in Cos Cob Park.  Not too long after, I read in the newspaper that this was going to be the site for the new Greenwich September 11th Memorial.  Several years ago, I had donated money for a memorial, and was wondering when it would be built.  Then I received an invitation to attend the dedication on September 11th of this year.  I received a followup notice that shuttle buses would be provided from Bruce Park, River Road and the Cos Cob Marina.  They were expecting a large crowd.  They weren't disappointed.  Five-hundred people attended the dedication!

Thirty-three victims with a connection to Greenwich died on September 11, 2001.  As we all remember, two planes flew into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, resulting in their collapse.  Another plane crashed into the Pentagon, and one crashed into a field in Shanksville PA.  (It's believed a Greenwich man - Donald Freeman Greene - helped storm the cockpit and prevented United Airlines Flight 93 from hitting another target in Washington).  These were some of the most horrendous acts of terrorism ever perpetrated. 

A group of people in Greenwich in 2010 decided Greenwich should have a memorial to honor our local victims.  They started the Greenwich Community Projects Fund.  Although there is a monument on Great Captain's Island, this is only accessible to the public in the summer months (June to September) when the ferry operates.  At Sherwood Island Park in Westport there is a monument, but this requires some driving.  Greenwich residents wanted something close by to remember the fallen.   The project languished for years until several influential residents got involved.  There was even talk of abandoning the project and returning donations.  A series of events were held as fundraisers, including a benefit concert and a Vineyard Vines commemorative tie and scarf sale.  Donations varied from 1- to 50,000-dollars.  In the end, the non-profit group managed to raise $750,000 from 1,000 donors for the memorial.




The next hurdle was to find a location for the memorial that was easily accessible to all.  Some suggested Grass Island, but this was turned down because of its proximity to the Sewage Treatment Plant.  Another suggestion was Roger Sherman Baldwin Park.  People felt this wasn't a quiet enough location, given the loud concerts, auto shows and Interstate 95. The end of Steamboat Road and Byram Park were mentioned, but parking was an issue. Greenwich Point was also a consideration.  Once again the accessibility by out-of-towners was an issue. (Out-of-towners must pay a fee to enter.)  Finally, they settled on the newly created Cos Cob Park, which is an ideal location for the memorial.  The park is accessible to all during daylight hours.  It has plenty of parking.

Landscape designers Katherine Herman and Cheryl Brown from the Doyle Herman Design Association of Greenwich were employed to create an appropriate setting for the memorial.  They chose a knoll overlooking Cos Cob Harbor.  The DeLuca Construction Company excavated the knoll, creating gently curving sidewalks which lead up to a black granite paving stone base. (The curve of the sidewalks was based on the mathematically perfect shape of certain seashells.)



Charles Hilton Architects of Greenwich was chosen to create the actual memorial.  As you may recall, after Ground Zero had been cleared, two spotlights projected two beams of light toward the sky - in effect creating two towers of ghostly light - that could be seen from New Jersey to Connecticut.  The architects tried to capture the idea of the illuminated towers.  They also remembered the impromptu memorials around the Trade Center that contained flowers, pictures and names of loved ones and small American flags.   The glass towers with the victims' names seem to capture all the meaning and sentiment of those memorials.

The memorial consists of two glass towers, which are 12-feet high and 22-inches on a side.  Low-iron content glass was used to create the towers so the glass won't discolor over time.   An image of an American flag has been frosted into the towers with a field of stars at the top and stripes running down toward the ground.  Each stripe has the names of several victims engraved on it.  Radiating out from the base are three metallic compass points (embedded metal strips) with the names World Trade Center-New York, The Pentagon - Washington DC and Shanksville PA engraved on them respectively.  At the end of the World Trade Center compass needle is a piece of crumpled steel from the WTC buildings.  The approach to the monument is a gradual circular sidewalk, which brings you to a circular plaza composed of black paving stone.  This was meant to represent the WTC plaza.  There is a granite bench next to the memorial, where people can sit and view the beautifully sculptured glass while overlooking Cos Cob Harbor.



There have been other memorials in Town to the victims of 9-11.  The Second Congregational Church - located on the corner of Maple and West Putnam Avenue - created a Greenwich Labyrinth of Peace for people to quietly walk.  The Glenville Fire Department has an 8-foot section of a 1,700-pound I-Beam from the World Trade Center displayed outside the firehouse on Glenville Road.  There's also the monument on Great Captain's Island, and various plaques and memorial benches around town. 

The most impressive memorial to me is the Twin Tower sculpture in Cos Cob Park.  I was there one morning at sunrise. Sunlight seemed to be generated from within the glass tower, and the glass seemed to magnify the light. For some reason, despite the terrible trajedy marked by this memorial, I felt better as I viewed the reflecting glass.  There seemed to be an unexpected feeling of Hope, which surprised me.  I pray that this memorial gives the families, and loved ones, of the victims the same Hope I felt when I saw the Greenwich September 11th Memorial on that beautiful early morning.  As one relative said,  she felt a sense of closure because she could visit the Memorial here in Greenwich.


Dumas, Tim. The Incredible History Behind the 9/11 Memorial. Greenwich Sentinel. 11 September 2015.  A1. Google.  Accessed 25 Sept 2015.

Round Hill Highland Games

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One of the first things I heard about when I moved to Greenwich was the Round Hill Highland (Scottish) Games.  Around July Fourth, there would always be newspaper articles about a grand gathering of Scottish clans in backcountry Greenwich.  Usually this would include a picture of someone tossing what looked like a telephone pole across a field. I noticed several years ago that the Games were no longer held in Greenwich, but had moved to Stamford.  Recently I decided to research the history of the Games.  According to the Greenwich Time, the Round Hill Highland Games first started in 1923 on the 147-acre estate of Charles A. Moore on Round Hill Road.  He was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, and was the grandfather of actress Glenn Close. Moore was chairman of Manning, Maxwell and Moore - a New York City-based metal products firm. He died in 1949.

Charles Moore was of Scottish descent himself.  He allowed his Scottish-born domestic workers and gardeners to hold a family picnic on July 4th.  In this way, the people were able to celebrate their Scottish heritage.  The event grew in popularity, and competitive games were added. People started coming from all over the country.  They traveled by train to Greenwich, where they were met at the railroad station by bagpipers, and marched up Greenwich Avenue on their way to the Moore estate.  The participants  included Clansmen, athletes, bands, pipers, drummers, drum majors, and dancers.




In 1925, approximately 6,000 people came to see the games. The Round Hill Highland Games became the third oldest games in the United States.  Competitors came from all over the country to participate in the games.  These kilted warriors competed in the Caber Toss.  A Caber is a long, roughly hewn tree about the size of a telephone pole. Dimensions range form 17- to 19 - feet in length, and 4- to 8- inches in diameter. Men hold the pole upright, run with it and toss it so that it ends up landing on the opposite end.  A stone put (or shot put) pits people against each other to see who can throw the stone the furthest.  Children, as well as adults, compete in running races.  A tug-of-war is also held as a feat of strength. Women display their skills with a rolling pin toss!  Dance competition includes a dance competition according to age, and features the Highland Fling and a Sword Dance. Men, women and children can participate in any number of sack races.  Horseshoe throwing is very popular. Other events include Scottish food tasting, story-telling, sing-a-longs, craft sales, Scottish dancing, piping, bagpipe serenades and having photos taken. Subjects can chose to dress up as a Highland Bagpiper, Scottish Chieftain, Highland Dancer or even the Loch Ness Monster and have a picture taken.  Prizes are handed out to the best dressed Piper (bagpiper) and best sailor hornpipe player.

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Another attraction was the assortment of foods.  Scottish meat pies with hot sauce were sold for 35-cents.  A ham, cheese, and potato salad sold for 30-cents.  Beer was 15-cents and coffee went for 5-cents. Scotch whiskey, of course, was available.  Children could buy soda.  People could also buy hot dogs, hamburghers, and ice cream.  Some families brought their own picnic baskets to continue the early tradition.  Scottish Clans were housed in tents, and people stopped to talk with the different families.

For a few years, programs were handed out with advertising from such local companies as Fred Knapp, Stevens Laundry, McArdles Seed Co., Bon Ton Fish Market , Marks Brothers, Finch's Drug Store and Doran Brothers.  A local travel company also advertised trips to Scotland, Ireland and England for $181 (Tourist rate).  The festivities ended with a colorful fireworks display!

Hammer Throw Redux.jpg



The Round Hill Highlander Games were held almost every year.  During World War II, the games were suspended, and, more recently, in 2004, logistics problems have caused postponement to the next year. The Moore estate was sold to a developer in 1998.  The property was sub-divided so that a large tract of land was no longer gathering.  This began the nomadic travels of the RHHG.  It was held for a while on Yale Farm, which was off John Street. Then it moved to the Blind Brook Polo Club site, best known today as the Pepsico property in Purchase, NY.  It was held in Stamford until 1988, when it moved to Norwalk's Cranbury Park, where it remains.  Although the Games weren't held this year due to a scheduling problem, they are scheduled to return next year.

The Scottish Games originated in Greenwich, and will remain a part of our local history forever - regardless of where they are held.


Greenwich Time; Time Warner Company, Southwestern Connecticut Newspapers, Stamford CTJuly 3, 2005, June 16, 1990, July 3, 2005.

Historical Happenings

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Navigating Family Search and Ancestry with Ease
Saturday - September 26, 2015 - 10:30 AM
Cos Cob Community Room

Penny Hartzel will share her "tricks of the trade" for
using these powerful databases to research genealogy.
Free.  Open to all ages.

Indian Mariner's Project
Saturday - September 26, 2015 - 2PM
Greenwich Library Meeting Room

Rich Mancini will talk about how Native-Americans
used Long Island Sound for trade and commerce.
Free.  Open to all ages.

Greenwich's Bruce Museum

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One of my favorite places in Town has always been the Bruce Museum.  When I first came here in 1976, I was intrigued by the nature dioramas.  Loved to take my family there.  I even volunteered one time to escort my daughter's class to the museum ("Not cool, Dad!" my daughter told me!)  For this particular historical blog, I thought I'd research the museum's origin.

When banker, cotton broker, and Greenwich resident Robert Bruce died in 1909, he surprisingly bequeathed his house and $50,000 to the Town of Greenwich for a museum that would highlight natural history, historical items and art.  The house had originally been built by Reverend Francis L. Hawks, and coincidentally was known as "Hawk's Nest" because of its location on a hill. ( It was noted that a lot of hawks congregated in the area.) 

The Town held onto the Bruce money for several years until they could figure out how to start a museum.  An article was printed in the newspaper describing the bequest, and asking for help with creating a museum.  Local resident Dr. Edward Bigelow answered the call.  He lived in Old Greenwich, was the publisher of a small magazine called the "Guide To Nature", and ran a nature summer camp for girls.  He had been on an expedition with the New York Zoological Society's Dr. William BeeBee, and was considered a notable naturalist. Bigelow wrote many articles on natural science. The Town made him the museum's first Curator. 

Dr. Bigelow was Curator from 1912 to 1936.  On his watch, the Museum was renovated and a caretaker's cottage was completed in 1918.  He also added many art exhibits. (Bigelow noticed that whenever they had special events or exhibits, attendance increased dramatically.) He loved to lecture on science, and is credited with expanding the Museum's programs.

Initially, his budget was very meager - only $5,000 per year from the BET.  His salary was only $100 per month.  Fortunately, he had other resources to fall back on - money from writing and lecturing.  Bigelow spent his own money on specimens for the Museum.  Not only did he travel to Arizona and New Mexico to collect specimens, but he also traveled to South America, the West Indies, Panama and Dominica.  He added live sloths, squirrels, snakes, parrots, mice and monkeys.  When a baby monkey was born, attendance increased exponentially!

In addition to the specimens he was able to collect on his expeditions, Bigelow received minerals from a sculpture supply company.  The Smithsonian Institute donated a collection of shells and mollusks.  Individuals, as well as the National Academy of Design, donated paintings.  Indian (Native-American) ephemera was collected, but the collection was so big that much of it had to be placed in storage.  A small collection of Indian jewelry was exhibited.  For a time, the Greenwich Society of Art held its annual show at the museum.  Dr. Bigelow had a case built to honor Ernest Thompson Seton, who started Seton's Indians.  Dr. Bigelow even arranged to lend out movies of his expeditions around the world. 

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Because there was no money for coal, the museum closed to the public during the winter months.  He couldn't even leave specimens in jars filled with formaldehyde in the building because they would crack in the cold.  The staff still worked in the building, but had to contend with the cold.   There wasn't a lot of money available originally.   A lot of school groups and camp groups came to the museum regularly, but families and individuals were only attracted by special events. 

Before long, Dr. Bigelow realized the public was keenly interested in new exhibits and programs.  Like any good business man, he knew repeat business was the key to success.  The more attendance, the more money was generated.  He started to collect unusual specimens.  These included a two-headed calf, a two-bodied rabbit and a snake with two heads!  These only lasted a while, but drew a lot of attention.  They were eventually removed.

The Museum also served as a trout hatchery.  Egg sacks were placed in a series of trays and cold water poured over them to facilitate hatching.  A micro-projection apparatus (arc light) was set up to project and magnify the egg sacks.  The state hatchery provided the eggs, and these were eventually let loose in the water. 

All the changes in exhibits and programs eventually helped the museum's bottom line.  Attendance began to increase.  Dr. Bigelow retired in 1937 and passed away in 1938.  Curator Paul Griswold Howes took over the helm. 

Paul Howes was born in Stamford in 1892.  He studied at Heidelberg and Harvard, and had traveled six times to Europe to study.  In 1913, a very young Howes went on an expedition to the Andes  with the American Museum of Natural History, and helped establish the first South American research field station.  By 1918, be was the Curator at Bruce Museum under Dr. Bigelow.  When Bigelow retired, Howes became Director.  He ended up authoring 8 books and numerous magazine articles.  Paul Howes continued improving Bruce Museum.  He was responsible for adding many exhibits.  Many items were taken from his own, private collection. Since he was proficient in taxidermy, he was able to collect and stuff many animals to add to the natural scenes.  He also took many photos and created many films.  As luck would have it, the museum received a windfall for some damage caused by the construction of I-95 in the mid-1950s.  This was used to build an art gallery wing on the back of the main building in 1959.  Another patron donated $1000, but this was the exception rather than the rule. Howes stayed until 1966 when he retired.

 A direct descendant of Kit Carson, Ray Owen,  took over after Howes in 1967 and remained until 1978.  There were only 6 people on staff, and he brought in volunteers to help run the museum.  He also helped start the Museum Shop. Exhibits were added, and lectures were presented.  A Junior Art Show was added.  Owen improved the programming, and brought in many special exhibits from around the world.  In terms of physical plant improvements, he improved the lighting, installed alarms and closed-circuit television, added a public address system, and added air conditioning. He even organized the Associates (Friends) of Bruce Museum.

John B. Clark was Director from 1979 to 1992.  He'd worked at the Morris Museum of Modern Art and Science in Morristown NJ and the Stamford Museum.  Clark was the Curator of the geology and mineralogy collection.   When he came to Bruce Museum, he thought it was very small, with very little storage space.  Most everything was out on loan as exhibits.   He had a large sign erected so that commuters could see it from the train.   This drew people's attention to the museum.

Clark discovered that the old building was in need of repair.  It was not attractive.  The floor was covered with a black and white checkerboard tile.  The gallery rooms were all painted a different color - pink, candy yellow, robin egg blue, and lavender.  The windows were boarded up with wood and painted a battleship grey!  Clark wanted to remodel the space, but he needed to come up with a vision.  Would the Bruce be a children's , art, science or family museum?  Would the emphasis be on programs or exhibits?  After much consideration, he decided it should be a family museum.

John Clark managed to get assistance from two prominent women in the community.  Anne von Stuelnagel from the Board of the Greenwich Arts Society offered her assistance.  Sharon Feissel (from the Junior Women's Club) also helped with the Museum Shop. The Town increased its funding to $140,000.  Clark decided to increase the number of supporters and the Bruce Museum Association was formed.  Even though the museum only had $15,000 in assets, its financial position was about to improve!




The first step in remodeling the Bruce Museum involved transforming one of the galleries into the museum shop.  Clark used some of the existing cabinets to build new ones.  Henry Chitwood, Chairman of the Board of Bruce Library, lent the museum $3,000 for renovation.  As more and more people came to see the exhibits, more money was raised and the loan was paid off.  The Connecticut Commission on the Arts also gave the Museum several grants.

In 1981, Joseph and Olga Hirschhorn opened a National Tour of their (world renowned) scuptures at the Bruce.  This was the first time a professionally mounted exhibit was sponsored by the museum.  The main event was a benefit for the museum which included a progressive dinner, and wine, dessert and dancing at the Bruce. Hirshhorn had some of the old tile replaced with carpet.  This is not the last time the Hirschhorns would help out the museum.  The collection was eventually relocated to the Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC.

One program that really put the museum on the map was the Dinosaur Exhibit.  Jim Gray (1939 - 2006), an African-American artist from New Jersey, had sculpted large dinosaurs from automobile parts.  People came to view the art by the thousands.     Another popular program was a Ukranian Egg Exhibit, which was shown around Easter time.  People could come in and learn how to "blow out" eggs.  Public interest was piqued, and the institution established itself as a real family museum.

As time went on, Clark felt it was time to re-design the building. When Clark approached the BET for funding, he was told to seek private funding.  This freed him to undertake a large capital campaign. The Greenwich community answered the call.  An architectural firm was hired to come up with a functional design.  Ground was broken by the Pavarini Company in December 1992.  Since the head of the company was a Greenwich resident, he took a keen interest in the project.  The museum had to be emptied, and all items stored away for a year-and-a-half.  It took 30 truckloads to remove all the items.  A red brick building on Elm Street offered by Fleet Bank provided 7,000 square feet of storage.  The Museum only had to pay $1000 per month for utilities.  Fleet Bank also donated $50,000 in furniture to the museum.  Bruce Museum was closed for a year-and-a-half.

The project was not without its problems.  First of all, there were no blueprints for the building, which had been built in 1853.  There was no solid footing under one section since it was built on clay.  During construction, asbestos was found in the walls. The building had to be made ADA compliant. Photographs were taken to document the old building.  Once everything was removed, the museum staff and Board held a construction party.  Construction was completed in June 1993, and the museum officially opened in September 1993.  The cost was about $7-million.

One objective was to increase office space, which they did. In effect, the Museum doubled its size to 16,000 square feet.  The Museum was redesigned to have an Animal Hall, a Geology Hall and a Fossil Room.   There were not as many dioramas, the Museum gift shop was expanded and more space for paintings was created.   More programs were offered, including an art bizarre of sorts.  Once a year artists set up booths and sell their creations on the Museum site during the Outdoor Arts Festival.

From 1995 to 2000, Hollister Sturges III served as Director of the Bruce.  Sturges was the first art professional to be employed as Director.  His main achievement was to develop the museum's art collection, and obtain accreditation for the museum.  It became the second most visited art museum in Connecticut.  Noted experts on art came to lecture, which attracted many people.  A dinner lecture series was even created.  The Renaissance Ball was started as a major fund raiser.  The goal was to create a larger space for art, science and the permanent collection.  Much of the collection was still in storage. 

new front bruce176.jpg



As the museum improved its facilities, it became a venue for more important art exhibitions.  Bruce Museum was chosen for a Japanese exhibit (2002), an African art exhibit, and loans from the National Gallery in Washington DC and the National Museum of American Art.  In the late 1990s, it hosted the Linda McCartney photo exhibit.  An internship program was started for young scholars, who were interested in a museum career.

Hollister Sturges was dismissed in April 2000 under controversial circumstances.  Homer McK Rees was retired from the financial world, and was approached to serve as Interim Director.  He later served on the Board of the Bruce Museum and served as the Treasurer.  In April 2000, he took over the helm.

Rees was all business.  He reduced the size of the unwieldy Board of Directors, and streamlined their duties. It became less of a management board, and more of a governing board - the way it was meant to operate.  He reviewed the performance of the staff, and had their salaries increased.  Rees was able to apply his business expertise and philosophy to improve operations.

Homer McK Rees stayed for about a year-and-a-half until Peter Sutton was hired. Sutton graduated Magna Cum Laude from Harvard, and earned an MBA and PhD at Yale.  Job experience included work at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford.  He brought a strong art background to the job, and worked hard to promote the art collection.  (Greenwich has a high concentration of art collectors due to its proximity to New York City.)

Sutton had to restore confidence in the museum, and guide the museum after the reorganization of the Board.  He had to reclaim his role as manager, specifically hiring and firing, managing the budget and administering policy.  Private fund raising had to be increased to meet the demand, especially through endowments.  Sutton also expanded other programs in the museum, especially science.  He utilized the Brucemobile and Seaside Museum to reach out to young students.  The Museum Council - volunteers who help with the art collection - worked with the Director to keep it relevant.

Peter Sutton has been a real "hands-on" manager.  He has been actively involved in long-term planning.  This involves looking at renovation and expansion, as well as the use of multiple sites.  He has managed to increase attendance tremendously.  And his enthusiasm has been contagious!

Bruce Museum has come a long way since the Curator had to collect items for exhibits and personally build display cases. Individuals donate money, as well as their personal items, to underwrite exhibits.  Volunteers serve as docents and help with programs. The general populace has embraced the Museum, and many people have given their time, wealth and talent to preserving this wonderful educational and cultural institution.  The future looks very bright!


Clark, J.: The Bruce Museum;  Greenwich Library Oral History Project, Greenwich CT: 1955

Howes, P.: The Bruce Museum: The First Fifty Years: Greenwich Library Oral History Project, Greenwich CT 1978

Mortimer, H et al: The Bruce Museum: A Century of Change; Greenwich Library Oral History Project, Greenwich CT, 2007.

Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs

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If you've ever turned from Shore Road down Tomac Avenue in Old Greenwich, you may have noticed a white wall with painted images of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs separating 31 Shore Road from 3 Tomac Court.  I searched our newspaper index to see if I could find an article that had any information. Couldn't find anything.   I then decided to try and contact the owner of the wall.  This wasn't as easy as you'd think!   I couldn't tell who owned the wall.  So like any good Librarian, I checked out Google Maps to find the addresses of both properties, and used the Reverse Phone Directory to find some names and phone numbers.  I got no answer at either address, so had to leave my phone number.

Panorama Snow.jpg



After several days of phone tag, I received a call from a gentleman who lived at 3 Tomac Court.  He told me that Lorraine and Fred Cofone on Shore Road had the wall painted, and that there was a very interesting story behind it.  Finally, I was able to get Lorraine Cofone on the phone, and she was very helpful.  She explained much of the history, and told me that her neighbor at the time had called the newspaper.  A reporter came down, interviewed them and took some pictures.  The article and photo appeared in the Thursday, November 20, 1975, edition of the Village Gazette.

According to the newspaper, the Cofones had painted the wall white, and it looked very plain.  When Lorraine asked her husband, Fred, what they should do about it, he suggested a painting of Snow White.  They had a 16-month son at the time, and they had it painted for him.




Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was an animated fantasy developed by Walt Disney in 1937. Most of us know the story of the stepmother who tries to kill her, the Dwarfs who take her in, and the handsome Prince who awakens her with a kiss.  Disney was awarded an honorary Oscar, and the movie was nominated for the best musical score in 1938.  It was added to the National Film Registry in 1989, and is considered one of the American Film Institutes 100 Greatest Films of All Time.

The wall was first painted in 1975 by an artist, Marcia Tartaglia.  Marcia was a Cos Cob resident and friend of the family.  She graduated from Greenwich High School, had studied art at Norwalk Community College, worked at the Carnival Card Shop and designed labels for a line of seed packets. Residents may remember the images she painted for the Bon-Ton Fish Market on Greenwich Avenue years ago.  When the Cofones approached her to paint the Snow White mural on their wall, she looked in a Disney color book of Snow White for some ideas. 

Marcia began the process by sketching the image of Snow White on the white wall.  Then she painted in the colors.  This had to be done on days when the weather was good.  She then finished the dwarfs in order:  Dopey, Sneezy, Bashful, Sleepy, Happy, Grumpy and Doc. Marcia enhanced the painting by adding images of birds, small animals, a Diamond Mine and some grass. When you turn the corner from Shore Road, you see Snow White waving at you! 




The artist wasn't alone when she painted!  The family dog, Heidi, stayed close by, watching the progress.  The big, gentle German Shepherd loved to lie in the sun between the images of Sneezy and Bashful.  As a tribute to the dog, Marcia included Heidi's image at the far end of the wall.  It's a life-size portrait - one that the real Heidi likes to lie next to.

Marcia had never been to Disneyland in California;  but she had been to Walt Disney World in Florida.  She believed that was much better than the west coast attraction.

Over the years, the mural faded.  In the summer of 2014, the Cofones once again hired an artist to refurbish the wall.  Their current dog befriended the artist, and followed the painter around the property!

The wall is somewhat of a "tourist attraction".  School students come by on a bus for what's called an "Early American Tour".   It's considered a local historical site.  Strangers have stopped by to take pictures, and thank the Cofones for the mural.  Since it's very close to the intersection, drivers have to be very careful when they stop to take pictures. 

Many thanks to Lorraine Cofone for sharing this very interesting story with us!


Clark, El: "Disney World on Tomac Avenue!":  Village Gazette, Old Greenwich CT, 20 Nov. 1975, Print

Staying On Time

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No doubt you've noticed the clocks on Greenwich Avenue.  There are two of them:  one outside Betteridge Jewelers at 119 Greenwich Avenue, and one across from the old Post Office in front of the Christian Science Reading Room at 333 Greenwich Avenue.(There are also similar clocks in Old Greenwich, in front of the Town Hall and next to the Cos Cob Firehouse.)  I found out the original one at 333 Greenwich Avenue was manufactured by the E Howard Clock Company near Boston MA.  This company also built the steeple clock for Harkness Memorial Hall at Yale University in New Haven.

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According to The Greenwich Mail newspaper, the clock was installed at 333 Greenwich Avenue in 1926. It was originally built for someone else, but it was never picked up.  Mr. William D. Hill, who owned the Lester H. Denson Jeweler store, bought it for $500, which was a bargain back then. He used to go out and wind the clock.  If he forgot, someone passing by would stop in and remind him.  It was rumored that the clock was always within 30 seconds of the correct time.  I can envision train passengers checking the clock to make sure they were on time!  In the 1930s, the Town passed an ordinance banning advertising; the clock was considered advertising,  but disaster was averted when a variance was granted, and the clock remained.  The clock is 13-feet high, and was painted green to match the trim of the jewelry store.  Later it was painted black because the owner thought it looked better.  The face is made of marble, and the inside contains a wooden pendulum.  By 1978, the clock was still running well and only required an annual cleaning and oiling.  People rushing to the train station used to think it was running too fast, and would stop to tell the jewler; but it was very accurate, and commuters often missed their train!

Denson's son-in-law, William Dudley Hill, worked at the store and owned it from 1966 to 1978 - at which time he retired.  The new owner donated the clock to the town in the 1980s. The jewelry store finally closed, and a Christian Science Reading Room took its place.  A volunteer from the Reading Room would wind the clock until the the Town took over the winding duties.  A mail clerk from Town Hall would come over every Tuesday to wind it. A local TV station even came down to film the winding for one of its shows about Fairfield County.   At one point, the clock was even electrified to light it up and make it easier to read.   It was considered the Town's unofficial standard of time.     

In 1990, the clock began to show signs of wear and tear.  Eventually the clock stopped working all together, and the hands were stuck at 2:28. They didn't move for 6- to 8- weeks until it was fixed. The Town's Superintendent of Buildings and Manitenance, who was now responsible for winding the clock, arranged to have it sent to the E. Howard Company for repair. The repairs cost $2500.  When it was returned, it still wasn't right!  The Town then consulted Clockmaster Richard Brown from Sherman CT.  Within two minutes, he had it running like a clock!  A screw had worked its way loose due to the change in temperature when the mechanism was moved from a warm interior to the outside, where it was near freezing. Retired executive and clock enthusiast William Diefenback helped find rare parts to keep the clock in good repair.  Between 1990 and 1995, the clock underwent annual cleaning, and was checked for wear and tear.

In Old Greenwich, John Martello, owner of Sam's Liquor Store and President of the Old Greenwich Merchants Association, spearheaded a campaign to have a similar clock installed in the village.  A 11-foot electric clock was installed on Sound Beach Avenue around 2000.  It has a backup battery in case of a power outage, and it's programmed to automatically adjust for Daylight Savings Time. It even plays chimes!  The original cost was $15,000.

Then in 2000, the owner of Betteridge Jewelers wanted to have the old clock at 333 Greenwich moved in front of his store at 119 Greenwich Avenue so he could better maintain it.  After two years of applying for permits, he decided it would be much easier to install another clock.  He contacted the E. Howard Company to see if they had any used clocks, but none were in working order.  However, they were able to use the same mold to create a custom clock.  The inner workings were made by Rolex, and you can see the logo on the clock face today.The clock is slightly lower than the old clock, and cost $12,000.

The retro clocks are considered landmarks in the Town.  They add character, and remind us of earlier times.  I hope they're around for many years.  Even though time moves on, these relics are a constant.  For some reason, it's calming and peaceful to see them.  Maybe it's the familiarity.  Whatever the reason, they're part of Greenwich history.


Greenwich: 90 Years in Pictures:  The Greenwich Mail, 1968; Greenwich CT

Greenwich Time:  Time Warner Communications; Southwestern Connecticut Newspapers




Two favorite destinations for local residents who don't have the time or money to travel extensively in the summer is Little Captain's Island (Island Beach) or Great Captain's Island.  Connected to Island Beach by a sand spit at low tide is Wee Captain's Island, a privately-owned property.  It's believed that these islands were named after Captain Daniel Patrick, who was a pre-Revolutionary War commander.  He and the Feakes purchased land in Old Greenwich from the Native-Americans..

The first known private owner of the islands was Dr. Nathaniel Worden, who sold them to Justus Bush. When Bush died in 1760, the islands were left to his son, Justus Bush III, and some other children.  In 1761, New York resident John Anderson petitioned his state for ownership of the islands.  Anderson was granted a patent, which in effect gave him dual ownership.  In 1764, Justus Bush sued Anderson for trespassing, when he found Andeson cutting wood on Great Captain's Island.  the Superior Court of Fairfield County found in favor of Bush, and thus Connecticut.  Ownership remained a point of contention between New York and Connecticut until 1879, when a special commission granted the islands to Connecticut.




During the 20th Century, Island Beach underwent many changes.  An Island Beach Corporation opened an amusement park on the island, featuring a merry-go-round, shooting gallery, booth games, goldfish tank, a dance hall, a restaurant and one- and three- room bungaloos. The carousel was operated by hand.  It was eventually removed since someone had been injured on the ride. Over time, business fell off due to the short season and World War I. Judge James Walsh, who was a First Selectman, State Senator and State Treasurer, owned it for a while.  Then, business dropped off greatly due to tough economic times and the shortage of men enlisting during World War I.   In 1916, the island was up for sale, but, unfortunately, the RTM rejected the purchase in 1918 since they were involved in purcahsing Sandy Point Beach off Mead's Point as a public beach.  Eventually, the Sandy Beach  sale fell through.  Then two families, the Lauders and the Greenways, bought the island, and donated It to the town as a gift for use by the townspeople on October 24, 1918.  It was donated in memory of George L. Lauder, Jr, who died of influenza at the age of 37.  The famous fighter Gene Tunney was present at the ceremony. (He had married Polly Lauder). 

Two Mead's Point residents-Mrs. Wilks and Mrs. Campbell-donated money for a ferry.  The first one (the Island Beach) sailed in 1920.   Sanford Mead was the Captain, and he was assisted by engineer Winfield Mills.  In 1937 another boat - The Indian Harbor - was purchased.  It could hold up to 256 passengers.  Riders paid 10-cents to ride, while children rode for free during the week.  On weekends, children paid 10-cents to ride.   Island Beach became so popular that people started coming out by train from New York City.  It wasn't long before the ferry became overcrowded.  Private boat owners seized the opportunity to make some extra money.  They charged 25-cents to carry the overflow of people to the island.  One owner from Stamford sailed the 50-foot sailboat Massasoit with passengers, who got soaking wet since there was no cabin for the riders to sit in!  To address the problem of overcrowding, the town introduced beach cards to limit use to residents. However, this was not effectively enforced until the 1950s.




Since there's now a full-time caretaker on the island, it's necessary for the person to have a boat to get back and forth to the mainland.  He has to bring in his own supplies.  Water has to be shipped out by boat since wells cannot be used due to saltwater intrusion. At one point, water had to be stored in wooden barrels. In 1936, a 10,000 gallon tank was installed for water. Toilets use saltwater. 

It's an ideal job for someone seeking solitude since no one comes after the summer ferry stops.  At one time during the 1980s, a writer had the job.  He loved the isolation.  Some families have lived on the island, making it necessary to take the children daily to the mainland to attend school, etc.  It takes a certain type of person to live this kind of lifestyle.




Over the years, weather has had a profound effect on the island. In 1860, Greenwich Harbor and Long Island Sound froze over.  A man claimed he was able to walk all the way to Long Island from Greenwich.  The same thing happened in 1917 and 1934.  In 1938, the bungaloos were knocked off their foundations by the Great Hurricane, and in 1955 the dock was ruined by a windstorm.  Three bungaloos were also washed away.  More recently, in 1980 the Beach House and dock was ruined.  The White Hurricane of 1992 ruined the dock, and Hurricane Sandy did the same, making it necessary to postpone the opening of Island Beach until July.

The lawsuit to open Greenwich beaches in 1996 led to changes in the fee structure and access to Greenwich beach facilities for out-of-towners.  Fears of overcrowding were premature.  Out-of-towners now have to get a temporary town pass as well as a ticket to ride the ferry.  On the weekends, you'll find the greatest number of people taking advantage of the barbeque grills and refreshing waters of Long Isalnd Sound.  On warm days, you'll usually find the air is several degrees lower than the mainland.  You also get a great view of the Manhattan skyline.




One of my favorite events is the free concert by a Dixieland Band.  They usually board a 4:30 ferry, and play while the boat heads down Greenwich Harbor to Island Beach.  After an hour of entertaining people on the island, they re-board the ferry, and play all the way back to the Arch Street dock. 

Another special event is a "Cruise to Nowhere".  Several times in the summer, the boat heads out to destinations like Oyster Bay. You can't get off because the boat doesn't dock;  but if you're like me, it satisfies your need for a longer cruise.

We're very fortunate to have this town park available to the public.  It's a great place to take the children anytime.  Many residents view the trip out to Island Beach as a "mini-vacation"!


Island Beach: An Oral History Interview
Oral History Project. Friends of the Greenwich Library
Greenwich, CT.: Greenwich Library, 1979

Recently, I wrote about the Mianus River and Natural Park in Greenwich.  This is just one of the many beautiful conservation areas in Greenwich.   Another favorite area is the Montgomerey Pinetum Park on Bible Street in Cos Cob. 

In 1880, Fred Gotthold, President of the Gotthold Company - a straw goods manufacturer - purchased 55-acres on Bible Street.  He and his wife, Florence, built the "Wild Acres" estate. This included an 18-room Mansard-roofed mansion, a guest cottage, laundry building, ice house, water tower, wood shed, cow barn, garage, gardener's cottage, chicken houses ands a small barn.  They also enjoyed plantings, which included a one-half-acre perennial garden, flower gardens, orchard, walled garden and 2-acre lawn.  There was also a 2-acre vegetable garden.  Brooks and ponds divided the property, and there was a substantial hemlock grove.  By the 1920s, the Gottholds decided to downsize and put the estate up for sale.

Colonel Robert H. Montgomerey, and his wife Nell, purchased "Wild Acres" in 1928.  Montgomerey had been a CPA, soldier in 2 wars, a university professor and a writer.  He was looking for a hobby that would be educational, create beauty and provide public enjoyment.  So he decided to create a "pinetum" - a collection of pines.  Since Nell was an artist, Robert had a field studio built with a landscape view.  He also had a primrose garden built, which spanned a brook.  Other plantings included forget-me-nots, grape hyacinth and barberry.  Over time, the estate grew to 125-acres.

Montgomerey made many improvements.  He added a greenhouse to grow fruit trees, which required a hgh roof.  A formal entrance with stone columns was constructed on Stanwich Road.  In 1930, stone retaining walls were built along the main entry drive.  Montgomerey had 850 species of conifers inventoried over a 2-and-a-half year period.  They were photographed with handwritten notes.  By the end of his life, he had donated over 200 species of trees to the New York Botanical Gardens.

Colonel Montgomerey died in 1952.  His wife donated the 125-acres to the Town.  The gift specified that visitors be restricted to walking trails, the park be used for the cultivation of arts and horticulture, and that the Town could sell off portions if necessary in the future.  Initially, the Town Meeting rejected the gift due to the expense of upkeep.  Supporters convinced conservationist Helen Binney Kitchell to speak to the RTM about the value of the land, and the meeting voted unanimously to accept it.  The Town made immediate plans to demolish all the buildings with the exception of one wing of the mansion.




Over the years, the Town has made many improvements to Montgomerey Pinetum. The property has been modernized to make it more suitable as a park.  Land was cleared to give a better view from the mansion to the pond.  In 1955 a parking lot was built for those coming to skate on the ponds. A new lavatory was added in 1956, and in 1958 the remaining west wing of the mansion was repaired.  The University of Connecticut developed some planting plans, and a rock garden was installed on the south lawn.

It was in 1957 that the Town created the Garden Education Center. It's purpose was to inspire public interest in better gardening.  Two-thousand square feet of classrooms and workspace was created and the greenhouse was expanded. A Town nursery was started to grow fledgling shrubs.  The State recognized the greenhouse as an historic structure in the 1990s, and in 1993 it was added to the State Register of Historic Structures.  As part of a Master Plan in 1999, an inventory of existing park features was completed, and in 2000 a plan was put together to improve the park by adding handicap access, and expanded parking.

In 2003, the Town acquired the Pomerance Property off Orchard Street, which is adjacent to Pinetum and added 75 additional acres of woodlands.  Then, in 2007 the Tuchman Property added 31 more acres.  It's now possible to hike the entire area.

Today Montgomerey Pinetum is a favorite destination for nature lovers.  Just off the flagstone terrace of the main building are beautifully manicured lawns.  The reflecting pool remains, and tulips, daffodils and azaleas accentuate the grounds.  Tree species include Weeping Hemlock and Japanese Threadleaf Maples.  Visitors can walk a short tree identification walkway.  Several high rock outcroppings provide a beautiful vantage point of the forestlands.  One of these is the Joseph Hartman Outlook. This feature is in the northern part of the park, and was named after a man loved the New England wilderness. A large picnic area is available for those who wish to enjoy a meal in the outdoors.  The Greenwich Audubon Society  maintains the Mildred Bedard Caldwell Wildlife Sanctuary, which is bordered by Pinetum Lane, Bible Street,  and Cat Rock Road, to the northeast of Pinetum.  There is a trail from the Sanctuary, which leads directly to Montgomerey Pinetum.  

Due to siltation, public skating at Montgomerey Pinetum has ceased.  It's still a fabulous place to visit year round.  The fall is especially colorful in the Pinetum.  Although it's closed from November 15 to March 15, it's opened most days from 8 am to sunset.   Hiking boots are recommended, and insect repellent in the warm months is a good idea. 


"Montgomerey Pinetum Park." Montgomerey Pinetum Park. Town of Greenwich. Web. 1 May 2015.

Montgomerey Pinetum. Town of Greenwich. Web. 1 May 2015.

Havemeyer Park Housing Project

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One of the most interesting neighborhoods in town is Havemeyer Park in Old Greenwich.  It lies just to the west of the town line with Stamford, and offers a contrast to the housing projects and new condos just across the town line.  Although the houses are basically the same style (Cape Cod houses), each one has its own unique character.  The houses were originally built to provide housing for the many Veterans returning from World War II


Originally, the land where Havemeyer Park was built belonged to H.O. Havemeyer. Henry (or Harry) was an industrialist and sugar maker.  He was born in New York City on October 18, 1847.  He studied at Bellport Academy on Long Island, then transferred to Bett's School in Stamford.  It's reported that he had a run in with the Principal, and left school permanently at the age of eight.  This was the extent of his formal education.  Since his family was well established, he became the President and owner of the American Sugar and Refining Company.  Havemeyer's nickname was "Sugar King".  H.O. owned a sugar plantation in Cuba, and shipped his sugar cane by boat to New York.  He cornered the market in sugar all over the country.

In 1888, Havemeyer bought 85 acres about 2 blocks up from the Boston Post Road.  He decided to build his "Hilltop" estate. The view of Long Island Sound was magnificent in those days.  It took 3-years for men to clear the land and construct the buildings.  This included a mansion, barn, 3 greenhouses, a gardener's cottage and an artesian well. There was no bathroom - residents had to use an outhouse. Havemeyer raised cows, chickens and pigs.  He grew apples, grapes, figs, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, tomatoes and vegetables.  His pride and joy, however, was his orchids, roses and gardenias.  These varieties won him many prizes at New York flower shows.

Like many other Greenwich residents, the Havemeyer family lived a very rustic life  There was no electricity or running water.  Kerosene lamps were used for lighting. The roads were still dirt, and Mr. Havemeyer had to take a horse and buggy to the train station, post office and grocery store.  Actually, they were pretty self-sufficient when it came to food since they grew a lot of fruits and vegetables.  Havemeyer had cottages built on the estate so he could invite guests for the weekend.

It's a well-known fact that the Havemeyer family was very generous to the Town of Greenwich.  They bought and gave  the Town the triangular park in front of the Post Office where the obelisk now resides.  They also donated $250,000 for the Havemeyer School. Old Greenwich School and the First Presbyterian Church were also recepients of their generosity. Mrs. Havemeyer was a volunteer who supported Women's Suffrage,  and she belonged to the National Women's Party.

They were the first to buy Impressionist paintings by Degas and Monet and have them imported to the United States. (They were close friends of artist Mary Cassatt, by the way.) A large part of their art collection was given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.  H.O. Havemeyer passed away on December 4, 1907.



It was after World War II (1946) that Gene Tunney became interested in the Havemeyer property.  Tunney was a professional boxer, and was the world heavyweight champion from 1926 to 1928.  He married Polly Lauder from an influential Greenwich family.  She was related to Andrew Carnegie.  Tunney had had an interesting life, serving as a Marine, working as a lumberman in Canada, and even lecturing at Yale University!  He was committed to providing housing for returning veterans.  So in 1946 he purchased 149 acres for $173,600 from the Havemeyer estate.  There were several stipulations, however:

 1.  Each lot must have a 60-foot front,
 2.  the cost couldn't be more than $10,000, and
 3.  the first units had to be finished by 1947

Tunney employed the Stamford Building Company to handle the construction, while Fairfield Realty handled the sales.  Arthur Starck, a friend of Tunney, helped organize a Havemeyer Park Builders corporation, and a sales trailer was set up at the corner of Havemeyer Lane and the Boston Post Road. Starck was named Secretary / Treasurer.

Initial plans called for the inclusion of a California-style (strip mall)  shopping center at the corner of Florence and MacArthur Drive.  This would include a Bradlee's department store, food stores, drugstores, etc. This never came about because the Town and residents were worried about traffic and the "unsavory" element it might attract.  This property was rocky, and not suitable for any kind of housing construction.  The Havemeyer Park Builders wanted to donate the property to the town, but officials were suspicious.  They considered the land unbuildable;  but the Town finally relented, and accepted the gift.  Surprisingly, part of the land was eventually used to build Dundee School! 

The average house in Havemeyer Park was built on a quarter-of-an-acre.  It was a Cape Cod style with 2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom, a livingroom, an attic crawlspace or unfinished attic, built on a slab and later full cellars.  Standardization helped keep the costs down.  They weren't well graded - owners had to plant their own grass.  Roads weren't paved at first.  The construction company didn't want to incur the cost of putting in roads, so the Town took them over.  The Town also offered to plant cherry or dogwood trees for $15 each.  This was a good deal.  Some residents dug up bushes and trees from the old Havemeyer mansion.  Eventually, the mansion was razed to make room for more housing.

In 1948, residents decided to organize a Havemeyer Park Owners Association.  This grew out of concerns for roads and traffic. Owners were concerned about additional traffic spilling out onto Havemeyer Lane from Stamford.  Representatives met with Stamford officials, who agreed to abandon plans for additional  roads to add traffic to Havemeyer Lane.  Since the association had no money or legal representation, it had to rely on the good will of people to preserve its neighborhood character.  Most people complied with requests from the neighbors and the owners' association.

Once the houses were built, they sold out very quickly.  Buyers were mostly veterans, who could get FHA mortgages through the GI Bill.  Only $1,000 was required as a downpayment on a $10,000 house.  Today, those houses would sell for between $375,000 and $450,000.  The Veterans were usually married with young children.  Since they didn't have a lot of money, most of the families would socialize with each other.  They organized Christmas decoration contests, Valentine's Dances, picnics, bowling leagues, tennis groups, barbeques, garden clubs, Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts.

Over time, the families would save money and move to bigger houses in town.  Havemeyer Park became known as a "starter community".  Older people looking to downsize, and other ethnic groups moved into the Park.  The population started to become more diversified.  Of course, some residents remained since they like the community.

Meanwhile, development just over the Stamford line threatens to change traffic patterns in the area. .  A newly-constructed condo complex (including an access road) includes a rotary that may change the flow of traffic on Havemeyer Lane.  Plans for a big box Home Depot structure near the old Cyanamid building were abandoned due to public protests. A shopping mall adjacent to Laddin's Rock Road could spill over the Town line.  There is plenty of land near Havemeyer Park that could still be developed.  

 The Park, which stretches roughly from Havemeyer Lane to Florence Road and Palmer Hill Road to the Boston Post Road, remains a thriving and vibrant community.  Residents take pride in their homes and property.  The Homeowners Association still watches over developments in the area.  Everyone is committed to maintaining the rural nature of the Town.  Havemeyer Park will always remain a unique part of Greenwich.


Havemeyer Park : Oral History Interview
Oral History Project. Friends of the Greenwich Library
Greenwich, CT : Greenwich Library, 2002


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